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Fourteen Three Three Protein

The 14-3-3 proteins are a group of highly conserved proteins composed of several isoforms that are involved in the regulation of protein phosphorylation and mitogen actived protein kinase pathways. The beta, gamma and theta isoforms are found in tissues of the nervous system.

Increased concentrations of 14-3-3 proteins have been detected in the CSF of patients with various forms of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). The positive predictive value of a CSF 14-3-3 protein concentration >4.0 ng/mL was 100% in a population of patients being evaluated for rapidly progressing dementia. Not all patients with CJD had an increased concentration of 14-3-3 protein in CSF; the sensitivity was 68%.

Increased concentrations of 14-3-3 protein have also been found in the CSF of patients with herpes simplex encephalitis, CNS hypoxia, CNS metastases, and metabolic encephalopathy.

Reference range is



<2.0 ng/mL


2.0 – 3.9 ng/mL


>= 4.0 ng/mL


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