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Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein Antibody

Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein is a CNS antigen expressed on the myelin sheath. Approximately 5% of patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) test negative for anti-neuromyelitis optica antibody (anti-AQP4) but have detectable antibodies against myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (anti-MOG). Patients with anti-MOG antibodies have some different clinical features than patients who are positive for anti-NMO antibodies such as:

  • Proportionally more men affected
  • More frequent simultaneous bilateral optic neuritis
  • Fewer painful tonic spasms
  • Spinal cord lesions mainly occur in the lower portion of the spinal cord

Patients who are positive for anti-MOG antibody tend to have better outcomes than those who are anti-AQP4-positive.

References

Kitley J, Woodhall M, Waters P, et al. Myelin-oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibodies in adults with a neuromyelitis optica phenotype. Neurology 2012; 79:1273.

Sato DK, Callegaro D, Lana-Peixoto MA, et al. Distinction between MOG antibody-positive and AQP4 antibody-positive NMO spectrum disorders. Neurology 2014; 82:474.

Kitley J, Waters P, Woodhall M, et al. Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders with aquaporin-4 and myelin-oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibodies: a comparative study. JAMA Neurol 2014; 71:276.

Wang JJ, Jaunmuktane Z, Mummery C, et al. Inflammatory demyelination without astrocyte loss in MOG antibody-positive NMOSD. Neurology 2016; 87:229.

Weinshenker BG, Wingerchuk DM. The two faces of neuromyelitis optica. Neurology 2014; 82:466.

Levy M. Does aquaporin-4-seronegative neuromyelitis optica exist? JAMA Neurol 2014; 71:271.

Weinshenker BG, Wingerchuk DM. Neuromyelitis Spectrum Disorders. Mayo Clin Proc 2017; 92:663.

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