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HIV Drug Resistance

Patients who are infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are treated with anti-retroviral therapy (ART), which has significantly reduced HIV-associated morbidity and mortality. The emergence of ART resistance prevents a sustained virologic…

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Stool Electrolytes…

The composition of normal stool must be known to understand the consequences of diarrhea: Normal stool has an alkaline pH. Sodium and potassium salts are the primary stool solutes. The sodium plus potassium concentration in stool usually ranges…

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HbA1c and Mortality

A recently published study investigated the relationship of HbA1c levels with all-cause mortality in 15,869 patients with and without diabetes who participated in the Health and Retirement Study. Participants had a median age of 64 years and were…