- Last Update On : 2013-12-24
Simple allergic reactions are the second most common type of transfusion complication. Allergic reactions occur most commonly after the transfusion of components containing large volumes of plasma such as fresh frozen plasma, plasma frozen within 24 hours, single donor platelets or pooled random donor platelet concentrates. Transfusion of red blood cells is less commonly associated with allergic reactions because they contain so little plasma.
Etiology: Allergic reactions are attributed to soluble substances in donor plasma (e.g. food allergens, drugs or ethylene oxide) which react with IgE antibody bound to basophils or mast cells in the recipient's blood. This interaction results in the release of C3a, C5a, histamine, prostaglandin D2, leukotrienes C and D4 and a variety of other cytokines. These substances produce an immediate type hypersensitivity reaction by increasing vascular permeability, promoting bronchial smooth muscle contractions, and stimulating mucus secretion