- Last Update On : 2013-11-04
Tobacco smoke is a complex mixture of compounds including nicotine, carbon monoxide, tar, hydrogen cyanide, nitrogen oxides, N-nitrosamines, formaldehyde, and benzene. Nicotine is an addicting substance that causes individuals to continue use of tobacco despite concerted efforts to quit. More than 45 million Americans or 19% of the adult population still smoke tobacco. Smoking is a risk factor for cancer, cardiovascular disease, and pulmonary disease and is the leading cause of preventable death in the United States.
Smoking is also associated with adverse surgical outcomes including impaired wound healing, wound dehiscence, incisional hernia formation, surgical site infection and pulmonary complications. Several mechanisms are responsible for the detrimental effect of smoking on wound healing including vasoconstriction, tissue ischemia, thrombosis, reduced inflammatory response, impaired bacteriocidal activity and alterations of collagen metabolism. Tissue flaps, whic