- Last Update On : 2013-01-28
Acute renal failure (ARF) is a sudden loss of renal function occurring over several hours to days. An increased serum creatinine concentration, accumulation of nitrogenous wastes and a decline in urinary output are the hallmarks of ARF. An increase of serum creatinine level by more than 0.5 mg/dL, a 50% increase of serum creatinine over a baseline level, or a >25% decline in creatinine clearance are accepted indicators of ARF. Oliguria is defined as a urinary output of <400 mL per day. Anuria is defined as <50 mL per day.
ARF occurs in approximately 1% of hospitalized patients and in approximately 20% of patients treated in ICUs. Community acquired ARF occurs in approximately 200 people per 1 million population.
More than 50 causes of acute renal failure have been identified. Traditionally, the evaluation of acute renal failure has focused on the determination of whether the cause of renal failure is prerenal due to decreased perfusion, postrenal due to obst